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New Spain-Index


Journal of Anthony Glass
Trading Journey to Texas 1808

From The Handbook of Texas.  Anthony Glass (d. 1819), a Mississippi planter and hardware store owner, was a trader to the Texas Indians in 1808-09 and acted as semiofficial emissary for the United States government. His journal of his Texas experiences is a valuable early account. In the years between Philip Nolan's first entrada into the North Texas wilderness and the outbreak of the Mexican war for independence in 1810, Hispanic and Anglo-American sparring began in the Southwest. During these years Spanish frontier troops were called out often to pursue parties of Louisiana and Mississippi Indian traders and once to halt a government exploring team sent out by the United States. The most important of these traders and mustangers who explored North Texas was Anthony Glass, who in July 1808 led a party of eleven traders on a ten-month journey to the Indian tribes of north and central Spanish Texas. Not only did Glass act as a semiofficial envoy for Thomas Jefferson's administration, but he also became perhaps the first Anglo-American to see Po-a-cat-le-pi-le-car-re (the Texas Iron), a meteorite important in the religion of Texas Indians and subsequently famous in American science.

Glass and his brother Andrew were Pennsylvania tories who moved to the Natchez area soon after the American Revolution and established a plantation on the Big Black River. By the outbreak of the Civil War their estate was valued at $85,000. Glass's 1808-09 expedition in answer to an invitation extended by Taovaya chief Awahakei to Indian agent John Sibley was also motivated by traders' stories of inexpensive mustangs and "silver ore" (meteoric iron) on the southern plains. With forty-eight horses, $3,000 in trade goods, and United States flags and presents from Sibley, the Glass party journeyed overland to the Taovaya-Wichita villages on the Red River, where they lived and traded for three months. During the ensuing winter Glass saw the meteorite, traded with congregating Comanches along the middle Colorado, and then returned to Natchitoches with his mustangs and his journal in May 1809.

The Glass expedition had three important consequences for Texas history. It led directly to the reversal of a Spanish policy, dating from the turmoil of the summer of 1806, of avoiding disturbances with the United States. It stimulated, in 1809-10, the retrieval by some of Glass's party of the 1,635-pound meteorite-the largest in any collection in the world for most of the nineteenth century. Finally, it generated a rare early trader's journal. Glass's journal is believed to be the earliest firsthand account by an American of Taovaya-Wichita and Comanche life and of the experience of plains mustanging. Dan L. Flores

Historian Dan Flores, who wrote the above summary, is the author of Journal of an Indian Trader:  Anthony Glass and the Texas Trading Frontier, 1790-1810 (Texas A&M University Press, College Station, 1985) which includes the annotated Anthony Glass diary with sufficient footnotes to follow Glass' journey and interpret his context.   The work is preceded by a thorough introductory section of The American Trader and the Southwestern Frontier and followed by an Epilogue:  The Saga of the "Texas Iron," an interpretation of the impact of the great meteorite of the Southern Plains on early Texas and Western history.  He contends that it is this source of metal, its reverence by aboriginal tribes and the constant legend passed among them and to outsiders that was the source of precious metal stories and legends and their driving force on exploration of the area for riches and mines since Coronado's search of Quivara in 1541.

Dr. John SibleyThe Glass journal was uncovered in the 1820's by renowned pioneer chemical educator and researcher Benjamin Silliman from Yale University in his research on the largest meteorite of the period, the "Louisiana Iron"  (later called "Texas Iron" and "Red River" where it resides in the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History).  He determined that Dr. John Sibley from Natchitoches was the source of the stone who had shipped it to New York.  Upon contact with him, he learned of the 28 page Glass journal which was a copy of the original given to him by Glass as a report of his journey.   The copy named "Copy of a Journal of a Voyage from Nackitosh into the interior of Louisiana on the waters of Red River Trinity Brassos Colerado & the Sabine performed between the first of July 1808 & May 1809 by Captain Anthony Glass of the Territory of Mississippi" is the only known version of the journal and is in the Silliman Family Collection at Yale University.  It is unclear to what extent the copy was edited by Sibley. sdct

[Glass uses the term Panis/Panies of French origin (Pani Pique, Pani-piquets or Pani Noir) to describe the tribes known most commonly as Taovaya-Wichitas and the term Hietan to refer to the Comanches--WLM]

The object of the Voyage was to trade with the Panis and Commanch Indians for which purpose a passport & Licence was obtained from John Sibley Esq of Nackitosh, United States agent for Indian affairs and the party consisted of Eleven persons; Anthony Glass, George Schamp, Stephen Holmes, Ezra McCall, W. Alexander, Jacob Low, John Davis, Jarnes Davis, Peter Young & Joseph White who agreed to Rendezvous & depart from the Salt Works about twenty miles from Nackitosh on the fifth day of July 1808 with sixteen Horses Packed with goods and thirty two Horses. The first day made seven miles and Camped at Caney Creek Crossing Black Lake which was found so boggy the Men had to carry the Packs.

July 6th Proceeded up Black Lake and fell into the Road leading from Nackitosh to the North, to Lake Bristino and Tulin's Vachery and camped on Cypress Bayou about 15 miles course North west.

7 This day made 10 miles over poor pine wood land one of my men killed a Deer. Camped on a Creek that falls into the Red River.

8 Made 19 miles course NW passing the Vachery of Tulin at a rich Prararie and a fine spring, passed several salt licks and Encamped at a handsome Creek.

9 Made 15 miles Course the same as yesterday. all this day passed over good high land & well watered killed a Deer & Camped at an excellent spring.

10 Sunday made 12 & half miles NW passed a large Creek which was swimming. a wide rich Brushy Bottom. growth Principally Hackberry, killed a very fat Deer.

11 Made 81/4 Miles passing nice flats of poor White Oak Lands. met three Conchetta Indians going to the factory at Nackitosh to trade. Encamped at a beautiful Praraira.

12th We lost this day one of our Men who went out to hunt got Lost we found him about three Miles from Camp. the Weather Cloudy, We killed several Deer.

13 This day made but two Miles having to Raft a Large Bayou, Bottom wide and Boggy.

14th Made six Miles Course WNW through the Creek Bottom it has rained every day for eight days.

15th Made 131/2 Miles WNW passing poor Brushy Lands away along up the North East Side of Red River. Camped and found we were within one Mile of the Conchetta Village. On the East Bank of Red River, as soon as the Indians discovered us they saluted us by firing many guns and we returned the compliments, these Conchettas (as they are called) are Emigrants from the Creeks. have not long lived here. They are friendly with the Caddoes who own the Country & who used to occupy the same spot; But now live about thirty Miles South West on the Lake 12 the Caddoes left the place on account of having lost many of their People by the Small Poxe it being a custom to abandon a Village where many have died. This place is nearly in North Latitude 32, 50: and distant from Nackitosh by the usual Road about 120 miles in a rich beautiful place.

16 We entered the Village early this Morning and found about 20 men, many were out Hunting. there were a few Caddoes and Alabamos, the Chief sent for a French Interpreter, appeared Friendly: and brought a flag of the US and hoisted it by the side of ours. we crossed the River in the Evening and passed on about two miles and Encamped in a beautiful Praraira. the Country here is generally Covered with strong cane the Soil extremely rich we missed a bundle from one of our packs which we supposed an Indian had Stolen. we sent back to the Village and demanded the bundle from the Chief, they at first denied it but at length brought it out from where it was hid in the Cane near the Road. they Informed us they were fitting out a war party to go against the Ozages which was the cause of the firing of guns the Evening before.

July 17th We were detained from setting off till 6 PM made about 7 miles through Rich Prarairas saw the remains of Caddo Huts and many Peach trees.

18th Our Course this day NNW through poor broken lands.

19th Made 10 Miles NNW met a Chickasaw and 4 women who informed us we were on the Road leading to the Panies from the Conchetta Village. Killed a Deer.

20th Made about 10 miles SSW along the dividing Ridge through Iron Knobby Lands. killed two Deer. we fell into the right trace and proceeded along it five miles.

21st Made 10 1/2 miles WNW passed a large Beaver Pond. scarcely saw a bird since we left Red River.

22nd Course this day WNW about 9 miles. Crossed a number of Caddoes paths made by Hunting. generally leading North and South. our trace became so dim we with difficulty could follow it. Lands Poor.

2rd Rested this day.

24th West 15 miles. Crossed the Road made by the Spaniards in 1807 under the command of Captain Vianne who was in pursuit of Freeman and Sparks who were ascending Red River on an exploring expedition by order of Mr. Jefferson the Hon. president of the United States. The country all allong here pretty much timbered with Ash Oak Hickory and the soil good here and there interspersed with Rich handsome Prararies containing from 50 to 2 or 300 acres affording beautiful situations. a party of Caddoes were on the same trail about 2 days ahead of us who had so frightened away the game we killed nothing for two days since we Left the Conchetta Village. We have been on the waters of Little River now commonly called the Sulphur Fork of Red River sometimes in sight of the bottom and generally traveling up the River and parallel with it. Immense Bodies of Rich land are on this River & the three Branches of it.

25th This day we made 13 Miles Continuing up the Sulphur Fork of Red River and encamped in a beautiful Prararie.

26th, We made 15 miles west. Crossing the south branch of the Sulphur Fork in the Morning which we found about 40 feet wide and 3 or 4 feet deep. about 5 miles from the River we came to a large Praraia which extends down in the forks of the River. anglining outwards after entering the Prarairie about three Miles. Came to a beautiful Lake about two Miles long, and two hundred Yards wide we continued along the Lake & the timbered Lands to the right, the whole country a rich soil gently rolling. Killed two Deer. the flies began to be troublesome

27 Made 23 miles WNW finding the course of the Praraire too much to the south and the wood on our right very thick and brushy to pass through with pack horses, All this day we passed small mounds innumerable Elevated 5 or 6 feet they are generally 15 or 2o feet in diameter and rising perpindicularly. We saw this day great numbers of Prararie Hens killed several and passed some beautiful Lakes.

28 Course WNW 17 miles crossing the middle branch of the Sulphur Fork of Red River. Lands very rich. we encamped by a Caddoe hunting path. Timber strong Oak Hickery Grape Vines & etc.

29th Rested this day in Camp. A wild horse came amongst ours three of our horses followed him off. we pursued them five Miles and were obliged to shoot the wild horse before ours could be recovered. one of our Men went out to kill Buffalo and has not returned. killed two Deer.

30th Remained in Camp this day. the lost Man returned but had killed nothing.

31 This day we travelled about 20 miles WNW through rich lands and watered by a number of Beautiful Creeks some of them we found saltish. We found this day large quantities of Excellent plumbs growing on low small trees or rather shrubs of about 4 or 5 feet high. we saw likewise large numbers of Prararie Squirrels about half as large as a rabbit of a greyish colour. they live under ground. raising hillocks over their houses about two feet high. Neatly covered with sticks and grass the doors of their houses are about 5 inches wide where a centinel is always fixed to give notice of approaching danger, when the Males sally out swell and bellow like a Bull but retreat as the Enemy advance.

August 1st Made this day 20 miles WNW through a Beautiful rich Prararie and crossed two Creeks in the bottom of which are large quantities of the Bois d'Arck. the tree resembles an Apple tree and the fruit an Orange the wood is yellow like The tree is hard takes a brilliant polish and the most Elastic of long wood known. the Indians make their bows of it from which the french have given it the name of Bois dArck or Bow Wood. here we shot a Buffalo and two Deer.

2nd We rested all this day in Camp.

3rd made about seven miles WNW left two Men behind to search for a horse that we believed some Wild Horses had decoyed away.

4 Course West North West 7 Miles the two Men came up without the Horse. they had killed the Wild one but could not recover the one we had lost---they killed a Buffalo and brought with them some very fat meat---Passed through some beautiful Prararies and killed a Buffalo.  sdct

5th Made this day 17 miles WNW Boi d Arck Creek or River we supposed near 75 miles from its mouth where it falls into Red River, the Bed of the River about thirty feet wide but affords but little water except in rainy seasons. here we saw great numbers of Wild horses and killed a Deer.

6th But 2 miles today, Course WNW fell in with a gang of Buffalo and killed three of them, one killed by a shot on Horseback at full speed. we are all well now and each Man with a Marrow Bone in his hand.

7th This day made about 20 miles course WNW passing about two miles through a handsome Prairies. Crossed a large Creek in each side of which is a thick wood. Stopped at twelve a clock to dine at an old Camp which two of our Men had made the fall before, and knew it to be about 50 Miles from the Panie Villages.

August the 8th This day we travelled Eleven Miles only, Came to Red River and crossed it at twelve o Clock the River here is about a hundred Rods wide and at this time about three feet deep. the Banks on each side very high on the North East side there are three knobbs one Elevation so high they can be seen the distance thirty miles and are particularly noted by all travellers entirely overlooking all the surrounding Country. the soil rich and the Country remarkably pleasant.

9th this day made but 3 miles. killed 2 Buffalo. Some of them seen in every direction Saw droves of Buffalo.

10th WNW 18 miles. passed over Brushy lands and encamped about five Miles from the Panis Villages and according to custom dispatched a Messenger to give notice of our approach.

11th WNW five miles the Messenger we sent to the Village returned early this Morning accompanied by six Indians and we were met by fifty men on Horseback, who Escorted us into the Village when in sight of the town we hoisted our flag and they immediately hoisted a similar one which they had received of Dr. Sibly of Nackitosh. a man met us with an Invitation to the Chiefs house. But we preferred encamping near the great spring and were conducted thither where I pitched my tent and hoisted my flag in front of it, about fifty yards from the Chiefs house---a band of Women came immediately pulled up and cleared away the grass and weeds from about the camp and also cleared a path down to the spring.

August 11 I then waited on the Great Chief and was received with every token of Friendship I informed him I would wait on him again the next day & inform him for what purpose we had come to his Country & returned to my tent we found our Camp filled with a quantity of green Corn, Beans, Water and Mus Melons.

12 About one hundred and fifty of the head men and women were assembled at the Council House. repaired thither all was silent after a pause through my Interpreter Lucas I spoke to them in substance as follows:

Your Great Father the president of the United States is still your friend and at peace with all nations and wishes you to be so likewise and will be your father and benefactor so long as you remain dutifull Children. The boundary line between the United States and Spain is not yet settled; but we expect to settle it amicably without a war; but should we be disappointed in this expectation I advise you to have nothing to do in the dispute; we do not want your help we are strong enough Ourselves---Whenever you visit us you will be treated in the same friendly manner which you treat us when we visit you. I have come a long journey to see you & have brought with me some goods to exchange with you and your brothers---the Hietans, for Horses if you will trade with us on fair and Equal terms, you will in future be supplied with goods brought into your towns; and in token of our Friendship and sincerity I present you with this Tobacco to be smoked this day by yourselves and Warriors: I have nothing more to say to you at present only that I shall be some time amongst you. I am now and all times shall be ready to hear any thing you may have to say. A-wa-Ke-Kes. The great Chief replied in a long speech expressing his friendship for the American People and how much he was pleased with our Visit and to see our National Flag waving in his land---the Great Chief lives in the town on the North east side of the river Called Quich, the situation of the town is beautiful the land of the first quality and the water from the abundant springs they use is excellent Issuing from a Bluff fifty feet above the River; the Inhabitants of this village cultivate about one hundred and fifty acres of Land in Corn, Beans, Pumpkins, Melons & their Houses are in the form of a sugar Loaf 70 or 80 feet in diameter at the base and thirty or forty feet high. The frames are forks and poles Lathed and Thatched with long cypress, resembling Pipe straw. their Beds are ranged around next to the sides and the fire is made in the middle the smoke passes through a hole left in the top for that purpose. The Chief who appears to be about 50 years of age informed me that he was born on the Arkansas River where his nation used to live but left that Country in Consequence of their wars with the Osages. that they had been at war as long as tradition Could trace." he returned my visit the same day. when he arrived a great number of Indians were round our Camp as he approached they all withdrew to some distance out of respect to him. The Chief farther said that when they first emigrated from the Arkansas they went and settled on the river Brassos distant about five days journey where part of their nation now lived called Tawekenoes. The Chief of the Village is situated on the opposite side of the River came over and invited me to come over and make him a visit I accepted the invitation and crossed over land found the village about a mile from the River and Containing Sixty five Houses; resembling those on the other side before described---they cultivate Corn Beans Pumpkins in about 300 acres of land. the town is separated into two parts. Kachatake is the name of the Chief of one part, the Witcheta Village; and Kittsita Commands the other division called Taweach; Chickakinik a Warrior and leader is treated by them with the greatest respect he has visited lately Governor Condero of S'Antonio and held a talk with him; and says that he told him to have nothing to do with the Americans that they were a designing bad people and by and by would make war against them and would kill them all, and requested he would always inform him when any Americans came amongst them & he would send men and drive them away; the governor likewise told him he would let them have Soldiers to assist them in their War against the Ozages and that they should come the ensueing spring and that he had already designated the place for their garrison---I exhibited here some goods which I told them I had to exchange for horses several came offered horses but were not satisfied with the offers made for them. A Chief man came up, and ordered the Indians all away; him and the principal chief spoke together some time and concluded that the fault was in my Interpreter and that it was him who made the difficulty; but they were mistaken. they demanded more for their horses than I could afford to give them two men went with me to my camp and were beginning to trade but before it was concluded the man who first made the difficulty came and ordered them all away.

14 The man I was endeavouring to trade with yesterday came over this morning and took the same for his horses I had offered him the day before. Several principal men came over and I bought about twenty horses without difficulty.

15th Bought this day thirteen Horses.

16th Sent out our Horses about twenty miles to pasture.

17th Visited the Villages on the South side of the River and was treated plentifully with Excellent Melons the best they had to offer.

18 All in Camp no occurrence.

19 Sent more horses out to the drove.

20th Spent all this day in Camp; Melons plenty.

21 The Queens with a number of women made us a visit they brought with them a parcel of poles and made with them an Elevated place to sleep on such as they use themselves.

22nd Continued trading for horses and sending them to the Cavirllard.

23rd The Men who were out guarding the Horses came in this morning and reported that a party of Osages had stolen twenty nine of them, and the best we

had one of them was tied with a Cabras (Halter) close to their Camp---the Men followed them five or six miles but could not come up with them. they believed from the trail that there were a Dozen of them.

24 & 25 nothing occured.

26th We heard of a small party of Hietans some distance off and some of our party sett off to buy horses from them.

27& 28 & 29 Remained in Camp and nothing occured.

30th The same Men returned from the Hietans with Eleven good Horses they had bought

Sept the 1st We moved our Cavirllard over to the south west side of the river. a party of the Hietans arrived to buy corn of the Pawnees. they made several Horse and foot races. are great jockies but when beaten freely give up the stakes.

2nd & 3nd All well in Camp.

4th Six of our Party with a Chief & the king's son satt off for the Lower Hietans with five packs of goods to purchase Horses and three men started with our Drove of Horses toward the Trinity River about thirty miles distant. Myself McCall and Lucas the Interpreter remained in Camp.

5th Moved up to the Chief's house and am now more Comfortable. the Chief is in our Mess we want nothing the town affords. Pitched my tent on a scaffold made for the purpose

6th Met the Chiefs of the west side of the River in Council. some of the Company was displeased at the offer I had made him for his horse and said he would go and Inform the Spaniards that we were here---a Woman replied you may go and inform them but if they come here to interrupt our trading with these Americans I myself will kill their Captain the other then said if that is your talk I don't go. Pawnees pen their horses every night. each family have a pen close to their houses. Not withstanding all their precautions the Osages frequently steal away their Horses in the night. their Warfare appears to have no other object but Stealing and plunder they dont kill if they can attain their Object without it. About a month ago they came and hoisted two flags between the Villages in the Day about 12 o Clock one Red and the other White and drove off about five hundred horses. they appeared so strong that the Pawnees did not think proper to sally out and attack them.  sdct

7th At Camp all this day nothing occured.

8th This Morning about Day brake the time the Pawnees generally let their Horses out of the pens a party of Ozages who were watching drove off thirteen Horses; after a great Parade in getting ready a party turned out and followed them. Being desirous to see the pursuit and what kind of soldiers they are I got my Horse and followed them-We followed their trail five Hours and a half generally in full gallop but saw none of them. found where they had killed a Buffalo and cut off some of the meat we judged from the appearance of the fire they had left that place about three quarters of an hour we returned to the village about 12 O Clock very much fatigued they appeared to have no regular mode of turning out. as one got ready he sat out. their manner of making Signals is worthy of note, which is by wheeling their Horses in a variety of manners and directions on a Hill so that those in the rear can Discover at the Distance of five, Eight, or ten miles and those who are appointed to give the signals are placed so that they can see each other and by this they will communicate the number and strength of the Enemy, of what Nation they are, whether Encamped or moving, and if moving in what Direction not more than thirty of the Party that went out had guns the rest had Bows and Arrows. They are likewise at war with the Tawenatas. the Panies have amongst them a number of Prisoners from those nations and some others most of whom they Compell to labour like slaves.

9th This day I was engaged in witnessing the mode these Indians have to Physic themselves---when they think they require it they drink a large quantity of Warm Water and Repeat it for several mornings successively Vomiting it up immediately after they have drank it---There are amongst the Panies an uncommon number of Blind Persons accasioned as they suppose from the air in Dry weather being filled with a fine dust raised by the wind from the Extensive sand Beaches which in low water are exposed---Men who want wives generally purchase them of the Uncle or Brother of the woman. the general price is one or two Horses. But if a stranger buys a Wife he must pay for her in Straw, Blankets, Vermillion & Beads. the husband always dresses the Wife as he pleases. But they are great Libertines both men and Women, not addicted to jealousy and nothing is more common than for a Man to loan or hire out his Wife; particularly to Strangers who visit the nation. They differ from almost all other Savages in another particular; the Men labour in the Field with the women and make all the fences, which are made by driving stakes in the Ground three or four feet apart and wattling brush into them. They have no cattle nor hogs and only Horses and Mules to fence against, they raise much more corn Pumpkins and Beans than for their own use they always have to exchange with the Hietans for Horses and Mules. the Pumpkins are pressed by cutting them round in large strings and when wilted is woven or plaited into a kind of Cloth, and they carry it with them when they travel, or go out a Hunting they make very little use of any other Animal food than Buffalo meat. Deer not being hunted are very plenty about their Villages and tame like Domestic animals The men have as many wives as they please and put them away when they please and the women have the same Liberty with their husbands. The head warriors can take any women they please Men of 50 and sixty are often seen with wives not more than fifteen; men and their wives never sleep together in less than 7 or 10 moons after the Birth of a child, this they say is to prevent the Children from being sickly. the Husband in the mean time keeps two or three women in the same house. There are in this nation many more women than men. during our stay in the town there were several deaths. When one Died a Natural Death they bury all their small trinkets with them and Instead of filling up the graves a bank with forks and poles is raised over them and none but the relatives of the deceased are allowed to mourn over them; But when one is killed by an enemy all the nation cry they mourn three days and then smoke and all is over---when one kills an enemy he brings home with him pieces of his flesh and whoever he gives it to become United with him as long as they live.---English goods are brought to this nation by a tribe of trading Indians who live on the waters of the Mississippi [marked out] Missoury called Owaheys who bring their goods from English traders from the Lakes of Canada. During our stay at the Panies Villages we lived in plenty. fresh Buffalo meat was brought in every day---they dry their Corn on a scaffold erected for the purpose and each house has put up from an hundred to an hundred and fifty bushels. and when it is sufficiently dry they pick it up in bags made of the skins of Buffalo & if they leave the Village in winter as they generally do they bury these bags of Corn in the ground and so artfully cover up the place that if an Enemy should in their absence come and lay waste their towns they would not find their Corn. Their forts are of a very slender construction made of mud, which they retire to when attacked by an enemy. they have about 3 hundred warriors. and in the Village nearly two thousand Souls with a large proportion of children, and some very old persons They are not addicted to stealing but if any small theft is committed and they are caught or detected they give up the article stolen with a smile.

They have a story of the Orphan which they often repeat, in order to preserve a kind of traditional record from generation to generation, they say some ages ago when they lived on the river Platt, that falls into the Missouri they had been so harrassed by their wars with the Ozages and some other tribes that they resolved to move to the south so far that their enemies could not find them, accordingly prepared and satt off, there was a little Orphan Boy whose parents and relations had all been killed by their Enemies, as they were leaving their Village forever, no provision had been thought of to take the little boy along every one seemed already to have too many encumbrances, an old Man who had no family offered to take him, and they sett off on foot for at that time they had no horses, in all possible haste as though they were flying from the Enemy and proceeded through the tall grass the Pararies resembling the Ocean, every one getting along as he Could, the little boy was too small to walk, and the Old Man had to carry him.---they made a halt after a long March and collected some Buffalo dung to make the only fuel these immense afford and after resting a short time and fearful of being overtaken by an enemy sett off again. the old man being extremely fatigued & nearly exhausted delayed setting off with the main band, thinking he would rest a few minutes longer and remained by the fire till the company were out of sight and to amuse his little comrad began to sing a song and soon fell asleep. the poor old man finding himself all alone and separated from his people expecting the Enemy might be on the trace any moment to appear in sight was in the utmost perplexity of mind. Exhausted as he was, to carry the boy and overtake the company was impossible. to remain with him, both would be lost, he looked upon the sleeping Orphan and wept at the resolution he was about forming to go and leave him. he kissed him and wept over him. turned his back advanced in the Path a few steps. turned Back resolved and resolved at length after one great effort sat off. the Company after some time missing the old man and his Charge made a halt. the old man came up, a thousand tongues Instuntaneously demanded what have you done with the little Orphan Boy? the Old Man almost breathless interrupted by sighs and tears told them, that he had left him asleep by the fire where they had stopped. every young man volunteered their services to go back and bring him, all the women and his little comrads calling Out to those setting off to make haste-they soon found the fire and saw the print where the boy had slept, believing he had awakened and strayed off in the tall grass they divided to search for him in every direction. in vain they sought and were about giving it out under the belief that some wild beast had taken him off bodily when they heard him singing the song he was singing with the old man when he fell asleep.

Their hearts were instantly gladdened thinking they would have him and he on their return, but on pursuing the voice they could not find him, after hunting for some time became frightened and were about tracing their way back to the Company waiting. when they heard the Voice of the Boy, directing them to go to an Eminence in sight and look beyond it, they did so and saw (as they supposed) an immese Valley covered with ice being more and more alarmed it being in summer the weather warm they regarded the ice as a miracle; being about to leave it they heard the voice of the Boy again tell them what they saw was not ice but something the great spirit had placed there for the good of mankind, they tasted and found it salt. the voice spoke again and told them to carry some of it to their Company and search no more for him for he was no longer mortal, and was with the great spirit. The party returned to their company in waiting and related the story, some of them took a journey every year to the grand saline which they call the miracle and every night to this day they sing the song of the Orphan.

Sept. 10. 11. 13th. 14th. Continued in town nothing worth remarking occurred.

14th The river has risen considerably and continues rising---Two Nandaco Indians arrived from Nacacdoches---the Chief myself and some others crossed the river over to the Witcheta village where we were to see them. I put my cloathes on a Deer skin swam and dragged the bundle after me. the river is here 5 hundred yards wide and the current rapid and at this time 12 feet deep and from the rapidity of the current and often shifting its channel from one side to the other the navigation is and must ever be difficult. the Indians this day killed 41 Buffalo: the whole of the gang that made their appearance in sight of the towns; when they discovered them fifty men on Horseback sallied out and killed the whole without firing a gun. they always hunt Buffalo on Horseback with spears or Bows and Arrows, they are dexterous Horsemen and have Excellent Horses. Each man singles out his victim and in full speed rides alongside of him either kills him with the spear which he carrys in his hand the handle 8 or 10 feet long or drives an arrow through him---I have seen an Indian with a Bow of the Boi' dArk wood, the most Elastic wood in the world, drive an arrow entirely through a Buffalo with more force than a riffle would have sent a Ball---The Panies are singular in their mode of putting their prisoners to Death---they have a post planted in the ground about two hundred yards from the village, they strip the prisoner naked and tie him to the post. they some time remain and all the people come to see him, after the women and children with sticks fall to beating him and beat him till he expires under their blows. They then cut the flesh from the Bones and hang it up in pieces in 2 different parts of the village---they never kill a prisoner who has not arrived to years of maturity young ones are made slaves or adopted into families as is generally practiced by savages.

15th, 16th, 17th & 18th remained in camp and nothing occured except being informed by several of the Indians of a remarkable piece of metal some days journey distant to the southward on the waters of River Brassos.

19 Hearing more of this singular metal to which they attributed singular virtues in curing diseases I resolved to obtain permission to see it if I could and proposed to them to go with me. this they would not listen to. there is amongst them a Spaniard of the name of Tatesuck who was taken prisoner when a child and raised amongst them, he was some years ago Liberated and might have gone where he pleased, but knowing no other language than theirs he concluded to remain with them, he became the most distinguished man in the nation as a warrior and the first Leader of war parties and is really a Brave, Subtle and intrepid man and his Wife a Panie woman as remarkable for her address and intrigue.---This Couple became my most intimate acquaintance I made them some presents and obtained from them a promise to shew me this extraordinary piece of metal, for the more I heard about it the more my anxiety was increased suspecting from their account of it and great veneration for it, it might be Platina or something of great value, no white man at this time had seen it; This day the Party of our People who went to trade with the Hietans returned and suspected that the Indian guide they had with them had refused to guide them to the Hietan Camp. This day to the 27th we were stationary at the Village nothing extraordinary happening

Sept 28th A Party of Ozages made their appearance on Horseback advancing directly to the village as though it was their intention to enter it, but it was soon discovered that their only object was to get between the Village and some of the Panie Horses so as to cut them off, which they effected and drove of a number. the Panis sallied out upon them and killed one of them and Ozages wounded a Pani so that he died the next day. Amongst the Horses was a very valuable one of mine We were persuaded it was the same Party who stole our Horses on the 22nd of August one of them was riding a remarkable Paint Horse that used to be my own riding Horse, which was stolen with those on the 22nd of August---The Ozage Indian that was killed was cut in pieces and distributed through the different Villages and all the men women and children danced for three days.

Sept 29th 30th Oct 3d In camp preparing to move. Satt off for an Hietan Camp and had proceeded but a small distance and encamped for the night south westerly from the Witchetta Village when the Panis found we were removing our goods a number came up to see us and began begging for something, the Wicheta Chief demanded a keg Powder and said that if we refused to comply said we should not travel on his side of the River. But he compromised for a small quantity.

4th Rose early to pursue our journey, in packing a Horse broke loose amongst the others threw his Pack and so frightened the other Horses that were packed, that another threw his Pack and burst a keg of Powder and all was Lost.---we travelled this day about 10 miles and encamped at a stoney creek in a handsome Prarie.

5th Travelled about 12 miles course SW passed several fine streams of running water and encamped at a small creek---the Lands but indifferent.

6th Made eight Miles and encamped on a Creek, course the same the Lands better than yesterday---Timber scarce.

7th Made 12 Miles on a creek where Awahakea the Panie Chief had collected a party of Hietans to trade with us we found about twenty tents they are made of different sizes of Buffalo Skins and supported with Poles made of red Cedar, light and neat which they carry with them. their tents are round like a wheatstack and carry their tents always with them. I presented the Hietan Chief with some Blankets and trinkets---he received them apparently with an ill grace, he is a very large man and ill looking---the Hietans proceeded on with us the subject of the mass of metal was spoken of by the Hietans. They made some objections to showing it---they agreed that the Panies who found it had the best right to it but that the land where it is belongs to the Hietans some altercation took place about it but it was finally agreed that if should turn out to be of considerable value what it brought should be divided between them. several times the Indian who claimed the right of being the finder of it and who had agreed it should be showed to us Refused to proceed and I was obliged to flatter and bribe him to go on---Our whole party now became very numerous containing of men women and children near one thousand souls and three times that number of Horses & Mules, most of them were tied with Ropes made of Buffalo skins every night.---It was impossible to remain at the same place but a short time on account of the Grass being soon Eaten up.

9th-14th Moving slowly on to the west through a hilly broken country which is fit only for pasturage. crossing the river Brassos about fifty miles we approached the place where the metal was; the Indians observing considerable ceremony as they approached we found it resting on its heaviest end and leaning towards one side and under it were some Pipes and Trinkets which had been placed there by some Indians who had been healed by visiting it. the mass was but very little bedded in the place where we found it---there is no reason to think it had ever been moved by man, it had the colour of Iron, but no rust upon it. The Indians had contrived with Chisels they had made of old files to cut off some small pieces which they had hammered out to their fancy. there has been no other found near it nor any thing resembling it. the surrounding country is barren Hilly, no timber but dwarf musquette, filled with grey and reddish granite Rock. not having the means of ascertaining its precise quality, only, that it was obedient to the magnet very malable would take a brilliant polish and give fire with a flint. I had some small scales cut off and left it. The Indians informed me they knew of two other smaller pieces of the same kind of metal one about thirty miles distant and the other fifty.---about twenty miles west of it there is a great appearance of Iron Ore and the country exhibits strata of shells which were pronounced to be Cokle shells by all of our party. The Country entirely Prarie. we have not seen a spring since we left the Pani Towns Many of the streams do not run but there is an abundance of standing water not being able to purchase Horses of those Hietans our Party became discontented and they all except Peter Young and Joseph Lucas the Interpreter Left me asking some of the goods and went in search of a larger horde of Hietans of whom they expected to Purchase what Horses and Mules they wanted. sdct

1808 October 14 journal continues Here I found myself at the distance of many hundred miles from any white settlement surrounded by thousands of Indians with nearly two thousand dollars worth of merchandise and a large drove of Horses and Mules fatting away in flesh and no assistance but Young and Lucas but all the Indians appear very friendly and say they will not leave me as long as they can be of service to me. and some say they will go with me to Nackitosh and not only assist me in driving my Horses but assist me also in Purchasing more.---we expect to meet in a short time a large Band of Hietans. We continue to travel southwesterly and always in sight of the great Rocky mountains. the soil not very rich but the grass excellent.---This morning discovered a smoke and awakened the Panie Chief and Lucas supposing it to be an Hietan camp set off to ascertain it and our whole Band sett off in the same direction though moving slowly.

20 and 21 Arrived at a large Creek a branch of Colerado where my friend the Panie chief and Lucas appeared and reported that they had seen a large band of Hietans moving and that we would soon fall in with them. Here we gathered as many Pacans as we pleased the ground was covered with them, being no other

timber on the creek bottom than Pacan---Here we rested two days.

22nd The Panie Chief and Lucas sett off again; and there came to our camp some of the Hietans; on the 24th they returned with a party of them and said the whole Band would join us in a few days and continue with us till we had exchanged all our goods for Horses and mules.

28th A large party of Hietans came to us. they amused themselves at night by a kind of gambling at which a great number of Horses and Mules were lost and won. the game was very simple and called hiding the Bullitt, and the adverse party guesses which hand it was in: they are very dexterous at this kind of gaming---we continued together---The number of Hietans have been increasing at our camp for some days: we have with us now ten Chiefs and near six hundred men with a large proportion of women and children. I meet with them every day and we hold long conversations together---they profess great friendship for the Americans or Anglos as they call us. Some of those who are now with us were of the Party who visited Nackitosh last year and are highly pleased with the treatment they received from Doctor Sibley the Indian agent and say they intend to repeat their visit. they are very desirous of trading with us but say Nackitosh is too far off.

December 7th This day arrived an Hietan from St. Antonio and said he understood that the Spaniards and Americans were going to war and that there had been a battle near Nacadoches. the Indians affect great indifference at hearing it and discover no disposition to have anything to do with our disputes. though they express warmly their good wishes for the Anglos (as they call us). and the same evening arrived several Panies who say they have lost one of the principal men a head warrior on hearing this the Panies set up a cry which they continued for three Hours and the friends or relations of the Deceased gave to those who cried with them their Blankets and flaps. these Indians are on their way to the Lepans who live not far from St. Antonio. the weather has been cold and rainy and trade dull the Indians are unwilling to part with their best Horses.

11th This morning changed our course North East towards the Panie Villages keeping altogether. Made about six miles. continuing on our march until the 19th.

19th Last night an Hietien Indian stole from us five Blankets we applied to the Chief to try to recover them but the Chiefs had ran away with them in the night---the Indians gamble every night the Panies are generally the winners, The Chief of the Lower Hietans who visited Nackitosh last fall has this day Joined us and says that tpe spaniards have treated him very civil since he made that visit he is a great friend of the Americans.

Dec 19th the Indians have taken my drove of Horses entirely under their care untill I sett off for home---two Indians who live near St. Antonio (Lepans) arrived in our Camp and called the chiefs together in Council I was present, one of the strangers then informed them that they were sent by the governor of St. Antonio to cut off my Head and carry it to him. After a minute or two Tatsuck my friend the great Panie warrior arose and addressed himself to the one who last spoke as follows---You want a Head do you? to carry to the Spanish governor? if you do I advise you to get your own cutt off and have it sent to him: I farther tell you that this american is my friend and if you offer the least harm to him I will soon cut your head off---There was not another word said on the subject and the governors messengers disappeared in a few minutes.---a Hietan from some of the upper hordes arrived and says that some of his nation have lately been to St. Antonio and stolen a large number of Horses and Mules and says that the Spaniards and his own people are on bad terms and that at the coming of new grass something will be done: they understand likewise that the spaniards and United States are going to war. I advised them in case it should happen to have Nothing to do in the quarrel. An Hietan this morning caught his wife in bed with a man of his party. he immediately shott him dead and then deliberately loaded his gun and shott his Wife also. some of the relations of those killed cried for a short time and all was over. this would not have happened among the Panies. they are more generous to one another. the Hietans often kill their wives so that in their camps they are more men than women---but with the Panies the contrary.

Dec. 30th The Hietans this day stole twenty three head of my Horses and say they lost that number when at Nackitosh. the Panies are not addicted to stealing and have done all in their power to prevent the Hietans. they run them off in the night.---We have now left the waters of the Colerado and are now on the Brassos a broken hilly country no wood but Musquette except in the river or creek bottoms---the country is excellent Pasturage but good for little else-about ten miles from the river Brassos on the east side about one hundred miles from the Panie Villages in about a south west direction, in an extensive Knobby Prarie, there is a mound of a Pyramid form about four hundred feet in diameter at the base and rising to the height of about three hundred feet, caped on the top with a limestone Rock of about thirty feet in diameter in the upper side of which there is a Cavity or Bason that will contain three or four hoggsheads of water in which clear cool water is always found when I mentioned to the Indians that it was rain water they were displeased and said no, the Great Spirit always kept it full of water for the Benefit of Travelling Indians. this Pyramid is formed by nature and the whole body seemed entirely composed of Granite Rock, the sides of it entirely Barren not a blade of grass or shrub upon it and the cap in which is the Reservoir of water occupied the whole top of the Pyramid I ascended to it and drank of the water in the Bason, though not without much difficulty and fatigue. The Prospect from it I found most beautiful entirely overlooking the whole Country round it for thirty or forty miles, indeed nothing but the arck of the Horizon appears to bound the prospect. the Country appears rich in Pasturage and well watered, with Copses of wood on the water courses---about twenty five miles from the Pyramid south west side of the river Brassos there is a salt spring where a considerable quantity of coarse salt may at any time be found on the surface of the ground over which the water flows. salt springs or licks are found near this River the water of which is too salt to be drank. The river Colerado we found about fifty miles from the Brassos, the country between these two rivers is generally hilly Limestone in abundance, mostly Prarie a small proportion of rich soil and all most excellent Pasturage we traveled along in the Colerado bottom about sixty miles found it rich and beautiful the timber generally Pacan and Grape Vines. Waggon load of the Pacan nut might be gathered. the ground was covered with them: the banks do not appear to overflow the bed of the River about 50 yards wide, the water clear and excellent to drink: I never saw in any country more beautiful settlements than might be made on this River. I suppose we were about four hundred miles from its mouth and it is too full of Rocks Rapids and Shoals where we are to admit of any kind of navigation

Dec 30 the Colerado and Brassos head no very great distance apart. and all in the high Lands that divide their waters from those of the river Grand The River Trinity heads within three or four leagues of the Panie Villages in the Prarie the water limestone and remarkable for its transparency and sweetness; there is a western Branch of the Trinity that heads about thirty miles from the Panies villages in a hilly country alternately prairie and Scrubby Oak range Lands. on the river and Creek bottom most excellent settlements might be made: embracing all the advantages that could be desired in respect to soil, water, Climate and health but too great a distance from Navigation---The River Sabine heads in rich Praries about sixty miles south east of the Panie Villages it is made by the union of several branches on which no country affords a more delightful tract of Country---I received some of my Horses that the Indians had stolen by means of the Exertions of the Chiefs and I believe they did all in their power to prevent their people from stealing---The weather is extremely cold stagnant waters are frozen an inch thick. we are nearly in north Lattitude 31.---The country considerably elevated and open and the cold severely felt---here we attempted to pen some wild Horses which are seen by the thousands and finished a strong Pen for the purpose but the Buffalo were so plenty and so in the way we succeeded badly in several attempts---The Hietan that Lucas took some stolen Horses from Came last night in our Drove and stole four----The Hietans keep with us still and we move slowly the weather extremely cold----The Buffalo have very much eaten out the grass, my horses are falling away, the snow is now six inches deep we attempted again to catch wild Horses and failed, we were in that pursuit several days, but four more Horses stolen.

Feb 6th The Hietans and Panies have parted. some of the former stole from me more of my Horses. I followed them to their Camp. the Chiefs did all they could to recover them for me. but the thieves run off with them. The principal Chief told me he was truly sorry but that there were bad men in all nations, and amongst them they have no laws to punish stealing and begged I would not condemn a whole nation for the bad conduct of a few individuals, that when he was in Nackitosh he had a number of Horses stolen. but he did not think the less of us as a nation and hoped I would have the same consideration towards them.

Feb 8th The Hietan Chief sent a man back with some of my Horses that had been stolen. I gave the man a Blanket some powder and lead. Tatesuck the Panie warrior having lost some Horses concluded to make a halt while the rest of the party proceeded on and I remained with him fer the same purpose. our camp reduced to six persons---Young, Lucas myself and three Panies.

12th A party of Hietans came to our camp who have come directly from St. Antonio and say the spaniards have poisoned five of their men who are dead and appear much dissatisfied and are glad the Americans have found them out: they say the spaniards told them to tell all the Panies and Hietans who have been with me never to shew themselves at St. Antonio and the same message has been sent to all the different bands of Indians in the quarter-here we attempted again to pen wild Horses and failed.

15th Young, Lucas and myself left the Indians and moved on towards the Panie Villages---on the 20th we arrived at the Brassos where we concluded to rest for a short time: the Pasturage being better. The water salt which we thought would be a benefit to our Horses---The Indians have rejoined us and we travel on together; apprehending some danger from the Tanveratas a nation at war with the Panies. arrived at the Panie Villages. Four days before our arrival a party of Ozages had been there attacked the Village, killed two men and took away a number of Horses amongst them were three of mine I had left there. The St. Antonio or Lower Hietans stole from me in all forty one horses we remained here untill the 20 of March when we sett off for Nackitosh our Horses being so very poor we were obliged to travel very slowly.  sdct

Character of the Hietan Indians. These Indians especially differ from any others in this part of America---They are rather Barbarians than savages living entirely on the flesh of Buffalo. they plant nothing. have no fixed residence. are divided into many bands or Hords, extending from the waters of Red River westwardly to Calafornia on the Pacific. they have very little knowledge of themselves or even the number of Bands, each band containing from one to four thousand souls and twice that number of Horses & Mules. Most of their animals they tie every night with ropes made of Buffalo skins to stakes drove down in the grass round about their camp, thus they never can remain but a short time in the same place; but must move to fresh pasturage. Each family have a tent made of Buffalo skins dressed white they pitch them in regular order and their camps have a handsome appearance and when the order is given to move no regular army strike their tents with more Dexterity and regularity; one Horse and mules is allotted to carry the tent, Poles, hooks, & c.---Some of the men of this nation are remarkably large and very fat-Many of them both men and women are nearly as fair as Europeans with long straight sandy or light Hair with blue eyes and freckles. I have seen many women so fair that if they were taken into the United States and dressed like American women and kept a short time out of the sun no one would ever suspect they had a drop of Indian blood in them. Yet the Chief asserts they are pure Hietans. they are many shades whiter than their Neighbours the Spaniards.---The condition of women is much worse than in any other tribe I ever saw. they are kept constantly and Laborously employed in attending their Horses Mares and Colts gathering their fuel, Cooking, dressing Buffalo and Antalope skins making and mending their tents & Saddles they dress the skins of the Antelope most beautifully and Colour them of every shade from light Pink to Black of which they make their own and Husbands Clothing, some of which they cut out very ingeniously in open work, the edges Pinked and scalloped resembling lace I have often seen them Black in so neatly Blacked and so neatly dressed unless you were to feel and examine them particularly you would take them for fine Black Velvet I offered a woman once twenty dollars for a short petticoat and she laughed at me. When a woman is married her hair is cut off close to her head and platted in with the Hair of her husband. I saw a chief who had twelve wives and wore the Hair of every one of them, in that manner, in an hundred handsome Platts reaching down to his feet, and covering him entirely as with a mantle or Cloak. I gave him a hat and the largest I could find, but he could not get it on his head and was obliged like a beau of the last century to wear it in his hand. Their Language is Gutterall and Barren and they will converse together for hours entirely by signs without a single sound.

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