SONS OF DEWITT COLONY TEXAS
� 1997-2003, Wallace L. McKeehan, All Rights Reserved
Plan of Iguala | Treaty
of Cordova | Annulment Decree by the Spanish Cortes
Iturbide's Proclamation | Iturbide's
Exile Decree | Annulment of the Plans
PLAN OF IGUALA
24 Feb 1821
1. La religi�n de la Nueva Espa�a, es y ser� la cat�lica,
apost�lica, romana, sin soberan�a de otra alguna.
2. La Nueva Espa�a es independiente de la antigua y de toda potencia, a�n de
3. Su gobierno ser� monarqu�a moderada, con arreglo � la constituci�n
peculiar y adaptable del reino.
4. Ser� su emperador el se�or don Fernando VII, y no present�ndose personalmente
en M�xico dentro del t�rmino que las Cortes se�elasen � prestar el juramento, ser�n
llamados en su caso el seren�simo se�or infante don Carlos, el se�or don Francisco de
Paula, el archiduque Carlos � otro individuo de casa reinante que estime por conveniente
5. Inter�n las Cortes se reunan, habr� una junta que tendr� por objeto tal
reuni�n y hacer que se cumpla con el Plan en toda su extensi�n.
6. Dicha junta, que se denominar� gubernativa, debe componerse de los vocales de
que habla la carta oficial dirigida al excelent�simo se�or virey.
7. Inter�n el se�or don Fernando VII se presenta en M�xico y hace el juramento,
gobernar� la junta � nombre de Su Majestad, en virtud del juramento de fidelidad que le
tiene prestado la naci�n; sin embargo de que se suspender�n todas las �rdenes que
diese, inter�n no haya prestado dicho juramento.
8. Si el se�or don Fernando VII no se dignare venir � M�xico, inter�n se
resuelve el emperador que debe coronarse, la junta � la regencia mandar� en nombre de la
9. Este gobierno ser� sostenido por el ej�rcito de las Tres Garant�as, de que se
10. Las Cortes resolver�n la continuaci�n de la junta � si debe sustituirla una
regencia, inter�n llega la persona que deba coronarse.
11. Las Cortes establecer�n enseguida la Constituci�n del imperio mexicano. sdct
12. Todos los habitantes de la Nueva Espa�a, sin distinci�n alguna de
europeos, africanos ni indios, son ciudadanos de esta monarqu�a con opci�n � todo
empleo, seg�n su m�rito y virtudes.
13. Las personas de todo ciudadano y sus propiedades ser�n respetadas y protegidas
por el gobierno.
14. El clero secular y regular ser� conservado en todos sus fueros y preeminencias.
15. La junta cuidar� de que todos los ramos del Estado queden sin alteraci�n
alguna, y todos los empleados pol�ticos, eclesi�ticos, civiles y militares, en el estado
mismo en que existen en el d�a.
16. Se formar� un ej�rcito protector que se denominar� de las Tres Garant�as,
porque bajo su protecci�n toma, lo primero, la conservaci�n de la religi�n cat�lica,
apost�lica, romana, coperando por todos los medios que est�n � su alcance, para que no
haya mezcla alguna de otra secta y se ataquen oportunamente los enemigos que puedan
da�arla; lo segundo, la independencia bajo el sistema manifestado; lo tercero, la uni�n
�ntima de americanos y europeos; pues garantizando bases tan fundamentales de la
felicidad de Nueva Espa�a, antes que consentir la infracci�n de ellas, se sacrificar�
dando la vida del primero al �ltimo de sus individuos.
17. Las tropas del ej�rcito observar�n la m�s exacta disciplina � la letra de
las ordenanzas, y los jefes y oficialidad continuar�n bajo el pie en que est�n hoy; es
decir en sus respectivas clases con opci�n a los empleos vacantes y que vacasen por los
que no quisieren seguir sus banderas � cualquier otra causa, y con opci�n � los que se
consideren de necesidad � conveniencia.
18. Las tropas de dicho ej�rcito se considerar�n como de l�nea.
19. Lo mismo suceder� con las que sigan luego este Plan. Las que no lo difieran,
las del anterior sistema de la independencia que se unan inmediatamente � dicho
ej�rcito, y los paisanos que intenten alistarse, se considerar�n como tropas de milicia
nacional, y la forma de todas para la seguridad interior y exterior del reino lo dictar�n
20. Los empleos se conceder�n al verdadero m�rito, � virtud de informes de los
respectivos jefes y en nombre de la naci�n provisionalmente.
21. Inter�n las Cortes se establecen, se proceder� en los delitos con total
arreglo � la Constituci�nespa�ola.
22. En el de conspiraci�n contra la independencia, se proceder� � prisi�n, sin pasar
� otra cosa hsta que las Cortes decidan la pena al mayor de los delitos, despu�s del de
lesa Majestad divina.
23. Se vigilar� sobre los que intenten fomentar la desuni�n, y se reountar�n como
conspiradores contra la independencia.
24. Como las Cortes que van � instalarse han de ser constituyentes, se hace
necesario que reciban los diputados los poderes bastantes para el efecto; y como � mayor
abundamiento es de mucha importancia que los electores sepan que sus representantes han de
ser para el Congreso de M�xico y no de Madrid, la junta prescribir� las reglas justas
para las elecciones y se�alar� el tiempo necesario para ellas y para la apertura del
Congreso. Ya que no puedan verificarse las elecciones en marzo, se estrechar� cuanto sea
posible el t�rmino.
Villa de Iguala, 24 de Febrero de 1821. [Archival Spanish version] sdct
ART. 1. The Mexican nation is independent of the Spanish nation, and of
every other, even on its own Continent.
ART. 2. Its religion shall be the Catholic, which all its inhabitants profess.
ART. 3. They shall be all united, without any distinction between Americans and Europeans.
ART. 4. The government shall be a constitutional monarchy.
ART. 5. A junta shall be named, consisting of individuals who enjoy the highest reputation
in the different parties which have shown themselves.
ART. 6. This junta shall be under the presidency of his Excellency the Count del Venadito,
the present Viceroy of Mexico.
ART. 7. It shall govern in the name of the nation, according to the laws now in force, and
its principal business will be to convoke, according to such rules as it shall deem
expedient, a congress for the formation of a constitution more suitable to the country.
ART. 8. His Majesty Ferdinand VII shall be invited to the throne of the empire, and in
case of his refusal, the Infantes [princes] Don Carlos and Don Francisco de Paula.
ART. 9. Should his Majesty Ferdinand VII and his august brothers decline the invitation,
the nation is at liberty to invite to the imperial throne any member of reigning families
whom it may select.
ART. 10. The formation of the constitution by the congress, and the oath of the emperor to
observe it, must precede his entry into the country.
ART. 11. The distinction of castes is abolished, which was made by the Spanish law,
excluding them from the rights of citizenship. All the inhabitants of the country are
citizens, and equal, and the door of advancement is open to virtue and merit.
ART. 12. An army shall be formed for the support of religion, independence, and union,
guaranteeing these three principles, and therefore it shall be called the army of the
three guarantees. sdct
ART. 13. It shall solemnly swear to defend the fundamental bases of this plan.
ART. 14. It shall strictly observe the military ordinances now in force.
ART. 15. There shall be no other promotions than those which are due to seniority, or
which shall be necessary for the good of the service.
ART. 16. This army shall be considered as of the line.
ART. 17. The old partisans of independence who shall immediately adhere to this plan,
shall be considered as individuals of this army.
ART. 18. The patriots and peasants who shall adhere to it hereafter, shall be considered
as provincial militiamen.
ART. 19. The secular and regular priests shall be continued in the state in which they now
ART. 20. All the public functionaries, civil, ecclesiastical, political, and military, who
adhere to the cause of independence, shall be continued in their offices, without any
distinction between Americans and Europeans,
ART. 21. Those functionaries, of whatever degree and condition, who dissent from the cause
of independence, shall be divested of their offices, and shall quit the territory of the
empire, taking with them their families and their effects.
ART. 22. The military commandants shall regulate themselves according to the general
instructions in conformity with, this plan, which shall be transmitted to them.
ART. 23. No accused person shall be condemned capitally by the military commandants. Those
accused of treason against the nation, which is the next greatest crime after that of
treason to the Divine Ruler, shall be conveyed to the fortress of Barrabas, where they
shall remain until the congress shall resolve on the punishment which ought to be
inflicted on them.
ART. 24. It being indispensable to the country that this plan should be carried into
effect, in as much as the welfare of that country is its object, every individual of the
army shall maintain it, to the shedding (if it be necessary) of the last drop of his
Town of Iguala, 24th February, 1821. From Appendix 1 of Iturbide, Agustin.
Memoirs of Agustin De Iturbide. Documentary Publications, Washington, DC, 1971 sdct
TREATY OF CORDOVA
Agreement on the Independent Kingdom of Mexico
24 Aug 1821
>Treaty concluded in the Town of Cordova on the 24th of August, 1821, between
Don Juan O'Donnoju, Lieutenant-General of the Armies of Spain, and Don Augustin de
Iturbide, First Chief of the Imperial Mexican Army of the "Three Guarantees."
>New Spain having declared herself independent of the mother
country; possessing an army to support this declaration; her provinces having decided in
its favour; the capital wherein the legitimate authority had been deposed being besieged;
the cities of Vera Cruz and Acapulco alone remaining to the European government
ungarrisoned, and without the means of resisting a well directed siege of any duration,
Lieut.-Gen. Don Juan O'Donnoju arrived at the first, named port in the character and
quality of Captain General and first political chief of this kingdom, appointed by his
most Catholic Majesty, and being desirous of avoiding the evils that necessarily fall upon
the people in changes of this description, and of reconciling the interests of Old and New
Spain, he invited the First Chief of the imperial army, Don Augustin de Iturbide to an
interview in order to discuss the great question of independence, disentangling without
destroying the bonds which had connected the two Continents. This interview took place in
the town of Cordova, on the 24th of August, 1821, and the former under the character with
which he came invested, and the latter as representing the Mexican empire, having
conferred at large upon the interests of each nation, looking to their actual condition
and to recent occurrences, agreed to the following Articles, which they signed in
duplicate, for their better preservation, each party keeping an original for greater
security and validity.
>1st. This kingdom of America shall be recognised as
a sovereign and independent nation; and shall, in future, be called the Mexican Empire.
2d. The government of the empire shall be monarchical, limited by a constitution.
3d. Ferdinand VII, catholic king of Spain, shall, in the first place, be called to the
throne of the Mexican Empire, (on taking the oath prescribed in the 10th Article of the
plan,) and on his refusal and denial, his brother, the most serene infante Don Carlos; on
his refusal and denial, the most serene infante Don Francisco de Paula; on his refusal and
denial, the most serene Don Carlos Luis, infante of Spain, formely heir of Tuscany, now of
Lucca; and upon his renunciation and denial, the person whom thp cortes of the empire
4th. The emperor shall fix his court in Mexico, which shall be the capital of the empire.
5th. Two commissioners shall be named by his excellency Senor O'Donnoju, and these shall
proceed to the court of Spain, and place in the hands of his Majesty king Ferdinand VII, a
copy of this treaty, and a memorial which shall accompany it, for the purpose of affording
information to his Majesty with respect to antecedent circumstances, whilst the cortes of
the empire offier him the crown with all the formalities and guarantees which a matter of
so much importance requires; and they supplicate his Majesty, that on the occurrence of
the case provided for in Article 3, he would be pleased to communicate it to the most
serene infantes called to the crown in the same article, in the order in which they are so
named; and that his Majesty would be pleased to interpose his influence and prevail on one
of the members of his august family to proceed to this empire, inasmuch as the prosperity
of both nations would be thereby promoted, and as the Mexicans would feel satisfaction in
thus strengthening the bands of friendship, with which they may be, and wish to see
themselves, united to the Spaniards.
6th. Conformably to the spirit of the "Plan of Iguala," an assembly shall be
immediately named, composed of men the most eminent in the empire for their virtues, their
station, rank, fortune, and influence; men marked out by the general opinion, whose number
may be stifficiently considerable to insure by their collective knowledge the safety of
the resolutions which they may take in pursuance of the powers and authority granted them
by the following articles.
7th. The assembly mentioned in the preceding article shall be called the 11 Provisional
Junta of Government."
8th. Lientenant-General Don Juan O'Donnoju shall be a member of the Provisional Junta of
Government, in consideration of its being expedient that a person of his rank should take
an active and immediate part in the government, and of the indispensable necessity of
excluding some of the individuals mentioned in the above Plan of Iguala, conformably to
its own spirit.
9th. The Provisional Junta of Government shall have a president elected by itself from its
own body, or from without it, to be determined by the absolute plurality of votes; and if
on the first scrutiny the votes be found equal, a second scrutiny shall take place, which
shall embrace those two who shall have received the greatest number of votes. sdct
10th. The first act of the Provisional Junta shall be the drawing up of a manifesto of its
installation, and the motives of its assemblage, together with whatever explanations it
may deem convenient and proper for the information of the country, with respect to the
public interests, and the mode to be adopted in the election of deputies for the cortes,
of which more shall be said hereafter.
11th. The Provisional Junta of Government after the election of its president, shall name
a regency composed of three persons selected from its own body, or from without it, in
whom shall be vested the executive power, and who shall govern in the name and on behalf
of the monarch till the vacant throne be filled.
12th. The Provisional Junta as soon as it is installed, shall govern ad interim according
to the existing laws, so far as they may not be contrary to the "Plan of
Iguala," and until the cortes shall have framed the constitution of the state.
13th. The regency immediately on its nomination, shall proceed to the convocation of the
cortes in the manner which shall be prescribed by the Provisional Junta of Government,
conformably to the spirit of Article No. 7 in the aforesaid "Plan."
14th. The executive power is vested in the regency, and the legislative in the cortes; but
as some time must elapse before the latter can assemble, and in order that the executive
and legislative powers should not remain in the hands of one body, the junta shall be
empowered to legislate; in the first place, where cases occur which are too pressing to
wait till the assemblage of the cortes, and then the junta shall proceed in concert with
the regency; and, in the second place, to assist the regency in its determinations in the
character of an auxiliary and consultative body.
15th. Every individual who is domiciled amongst any community, shall, on an alteration
taking place in the system of government, or on the country passing under the dominion of
another prince, be at full liberty to remove himself, together with his effects, to
whatever country he chooses, without any person having the right to deprive him of such
liberty, unless he have contracted some obligation with the community to which lie had
belonged, by the commission of a crime, or by any other of those modes which publicists
have laid down; this applies to the Europeans residing in New Spain, and to the Americans
residing in the Peninsula. Consequently it will be at their option to remain, adopting
either country, or to demand their passports, (which cannot be denied them,) for
permission to leave the kingdom at such time as may be appointed before-hand, carrying
with them their families and property; but paying on the latter the regular export duties
now in force, or which may hereafter be established by the competent authority.
16th. The option granted in the foregoing article shall not extend to persons in public
situations, whether civil or military, known to be disaffected to Mexican independence;
such persons shall necessarily quits the empire within the time which shall be allotted by
the regency, taking with them their effects after having paid the duties, as stated in the
17th. The occupation of the capital by the Peninsular troops being an obstacle to the
execution of this treaty, it is indispensable to have it removed. But as the
Commander-in-Chief of the imperial army fully participating in the sentiments of the
Mexican nation, does not wish to attain this object by force, for which, however, he has
more than ample means at his command, notwithstanding the known valour and constancy of
the Peninsular troops, who are not in a situation to maintain themselves against the
system adopted by the nation at large, Don Juan O'Donnoju agrees to exercise his authority
for the evacuation of the capital by the said troops without loss of blood, and upon the
terms of an honourable capitulation.
AGUSTIN DE ITURBIDE, JUAN O'DONNOJU. (A true copy.)
JOSE DOMINGUEZ. Dated in the Town of Cordova, 24th
August, 1821 sdct
DECREE OF THE CORTES AT
Declaring the Treaty of Cordova Illegal
13 Feb 1822
In the Session of l3th February, the Extraordinary Cortes at Madrid
approved of the following Articles.
1st. The cortes declare that what is styled the Treaty of Cordova between General
O'Donnoju and the chief of the malcontents of New Spain, Don Augustin de Iturbide, as well
as any other act or stipulation involving the recognition of Mexican independence by the
aforesaid General, are illegal, null, and void, as respects the Spanish government and its
2d. That the Spanish government by an official communication to all such powers as are in
amicable relations with it, shall declare that the Spanish nation will at all times
consider as a violation of existing treaties, the partial or absolute recognition of the
independence of the Spanish American colonies, seeing that the discussions pending between
some of them and the mother country are not yet concluded; and that the Spanish government
in the fullest manner shall testify to foreign powers, that hitherto, Spain has not
renounced any one of the rights which she possesses over the aforesaid colonies.
3d. That government be charged to preserve, by all possible means, and reinforce with all
speed, those points in the American provinces which still remain united with the mother
country, obedient to her authority, and opposed to the malcontents; proposing to the
cortes such resources as it may require, and which it has not at its own disposal. sdct
>Mexicans! As a fellow-citizen desirous of the
preservation of order, and anxious for your welfare infinitely more than for my own, I
address myself to you. Political changes and alterations in the government of states
produce no evils when the people are guided by that prudence and moderation which you have
ever displayed. The army and the inhabitants of this city have just taken a decisive step;
to the rest of the nation it appertains either to approve or reject it. As for me, at this
moment, I can do no more than feel grateful for their determination, and beg of you, yes,
fellow-citizens, I beseech you (for Mexicans need not my command) to repress any violence
of passion, to forget all resentments, and to respect the authorities; for a people
without authorities, or which possessing, treads them under foot, is a monster. (Ah! let
none of my friends incur the appellation !) Let us wait for a time of greater tranquillity
before.we irrevocably decide on our system and our destiny; it will speedily arrive. The
whole nation is the country; its deputies this day represent it; let us hear them; let us
not prove a scandal to the world; fear not that you shall be led astray by listening to my
advice! The will of the people is the law; there is nothing superior to it. Listen to me,
and give me this last proof of your attachment, which is all that I look for, and the
height of my ambition. I dictate these words with my heart on my lips; do me the justice
to believe me sincere and your best friend, ITURBIDE. sdct
DECREE OF CONGRESS
Exiling Emperor Iturbide to Italy
8 Apr 1823
The Sovereign Constituent Congress of Mexico at the Sitting of
yesterday decreed the following:
1st. That the coronation of Don Agustin de Iturbide having been the work of force and
violence, and legally null, no discussion can take place upon his abdication of the crown.
2d. Consequently it declares also the hereditary succession and the titles emanating from
the crown to be null; and that all acts of the government from the 19th May to the 29th
March last are illegal, and subject to the revision of the present government, which may
confirm or revoke them.
3d. The supreme executive power of Mexico will hasten the departure of Don Agustin de
Iturbide from the territory of the nation.
4th. The embarkation shall take place from a port in the Gulf of Mexico, by a neutral
vessel, to conduct him and his family at the expense of the state whithersoever he may
5th. During the life of Don Agustin de Iturbide, he shall receive a pension of 25,000
dollars, (about 5,000 l.) annually, payable in this capital, on condition that he
establish his residence in some part of Italy. After his death his family will enjoy the
sum of 8,000 dollars annually, according to the established regulations in such cases for
6th. Don Agustin de Iturbide shall receive the title of Excellency. The supreme executive
power is to take due notice hereof, and is charged with the fulfilment of this decree, and
to cause the same to be printed, published, and made known.
LICIENCIADO JOSE MARIANO MARIN, President.
FLORENTINO MARTINEZ, Deputy
GABRIEL DE TORRES, Deputy,
Mexico, 8th April, 1823, the third year of Independence, and the second of Liberty.
To Don Jose Ygnacio Garcia Yllueca. sdct
DECLARATION OF CONGRESS
Annuling the Plan of Iguala & Treaty of Cordova
8 Apr 1823
The Congress solemnly declares that at no time was there any right to
bind the Mexican nation to subject itself to any law or treaty, unless by its own consent,
or that of its representatives appointed according to the public right of free nations.
Therefore the Plan of Iguala and the treaty of Cordova do not subsist as to the form of
government and the invitation given; and the nation is at full liberty to constitute
itself according to the form of government that suits it best. Mexico, 8th April, 1823.
SONS OF DEWITT COLONY TEXAS
� 1997-2003, Wallace L. McKeehan, All Rights Reserved